References & Related Research

The following references are either cited in this report or helped to inform it.

Abu-Lughod, L. (2005). Dramas of nationhood: The politics of television in Egypt. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 

Adams, M. (2014). Music and the play of power in the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia. Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa, 11(1), 129-132. 

Al-Jenaibi, B. (2011). The use of social media in the United Arab Emirates: An initial study. European Journal of Social Sciences, 23(1), 87-100. 

Ayyad, K. (2011). Internet usage vs. traditional media usage among university students in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Arab & Muslim Media Research, 4(1), 41–61. 

Aziz, M. A. (2010). Arab music videos and their implications for Arab music and media. InCollected Work: Music and media in the Arab world. (pp. 77-90). Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press. 

Boulianne, S. (2015). Social media use and participation: A meta-analysis of current research. Information, Communication & Society, 18(5), 524-538. 

Chouikha, L. (2007). Satellite television in the Maghreb: Plural reception and interference of identities. History & Anthropology, 18(3), 367-377.

Christensen, M. (2013). New media geographies and the Middle East. Television & New Media, 14(4), 267-270.

Cole, J., Suman, M., Schramm, P., & Zhou, L. (2015). The World Internet Project. World Internet Project, University of Southern California.

Cottle, S. (2011). Media and the Arab uprisings of 2011: Research notes. Journalism, 12(5), 647-659. Courmont, B., & Clément, P. A. (2014).

Deloitte & Dubai Press Club (2012), Arab Media Outlook, 2011-2015. Retrieved from

Dennis, E. E., Martin, J. D., & Wood, R. (2013). Media use in the Middle East: An eight-nation survey. Retrieved from

Dennis, E. E., Martin, J. D., & Wood, R. (2014). Entertainment media use in the Middle East: A six-nation survey. Retrieved from 

Dennis, E. E., Martin, J. D., & Wood, R. (2015). Media use in the Middle East: A six-nation survey. Retrieved from

Dennis, E. E., Martin, J. D., & Wood, R. (2016). Media use in the Middle East: A six-nation survey. Retrieved from 

Dickinson, K. (2012). IN FOCUS: Middle Eastern media. Cinema Journal, 52(1), 132–136.

Digital Entertainment Survey 2013. (2013). Retrieved April 2014 from 

Downey, A. (Ed.). (2014). Uncommon Grounds: New media and critical practices in North Africa and the Middle East. New York: IB Tauris.

Ess, C., & Sudweeks, F. (2003). Technologies of despair and hope: Liberatory potentials and practices of CMC in the Middle East. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 8(2). Retrieved from  

Frishkopf, M. (2010). The controversy over satellite music television in contemporary Egypt. In M. Frishkopf (Ed.), Music and media in the Arab world (pp. 173–217). Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.

Gallup (2016). Gallup Poll Social Series: Governance. Retrieved from

Hroub, K. (2012). Religious broadcasting in the Middle East. New York: Columbia University Press.

Ipsos (2013). Online audience measurement in the Arab world. Retrieved from

Jones, C. W., Mitchell, J. S., & Martin, J. D. (2017, September). Gender and media: A nationally representative six-country survey experiment. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, CA.  

Kamal, S., & Chu, S. C. (2012). Beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors toward advertising on social media in the Middle East: A study of young consumers in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising, 7(3), 237-259.

Khalil, J. F. (2015). An Arab perspective. Digital Technology and the Future of Broadcasting: Global Perspectives, 109.

Kraidy, M. (2010). Reality television and Arab politics: Contention in public life. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kraidy, M. M, & Khalil, J. (2009). Arab television industries. London: Palgrave MacMillan.

Kraidy, M. M. (2012). Contention and circulation in the digital Middle East: Music video as catalyst. Television & New Media, 1527476412463450.

Lahlali, E. M. (2016). Arab media discourse: Breaking taboos. Kervan. International Journal of Afro-Asiatic Studies, (13 & 14).

Mahajan, V., & Zehr, D. (2012). The Arab world unbound: Tapping into the power of 350 million consumers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Martin, J. D., Martins, R. J., & Naqvi, S. S. (2016). Media use predictors of online political efficacy among internet users in five Arab countries. Information, Communication & Society, 21, 1-18.

Martin, J. D., Martins, R. J., & Naqvi, S. (2017, in press). Do Arabs  really read less? Patterns and predictors of traditional and e-book reading in six Arab countries. International Journal of Communication, 11.

Martin, J. D., Martins, R. J., & Wood, R. (2016). Desire for cultural preservation as a predictor of support for entertainment media censorship in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and the UAE. International Journal of Communication, 10, 3400-3422.  

Martin, J. D., & Schoenbach, K. (2016). Predictors of blogging activity in six Arab countries. International Communication Gazette, 78(8), 733-754.

Martin, J. D., Schoenbach, K., & Naqvi, S. (2017, August). Testing stereotypes about the online Arab public sphere: Predictors of concerns about internet surveillance in five Arab countries. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism & Mass Communication, Chicago.   

Matar, D. (2007). Heya TV: A feminist counterpublic for Arab women? Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, & the Middle East, 27(3), 513–524. 

Nötzold, K., & Pies, J. (2010). 'Going local' as a strategy to enter Arab national television markets: Examples from Lebanon and Jordan. Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication, 3(1), 43-62.

Pew Research Center. (2015). Global support for principle of free expression, but opposition to some forms of speech: Americans especially likely to embrace individual liberties. Retrieved from:

Pew Research Center. (2017a). Evolution of Technology. Retrieved from: 

Pew Research Center. (2017b). Mobile Fact Sheet. Retrieved from:

Real Clear Politics. (2013, 2015, 2017). Direction of Country. Retrieved from:

Sakr, N. (2007). Arab television today. New York: I.B. Tauris.

Sakr, N. (Ed.). (2015). Arab media moguls: Community, legitimacy and public life. New York: IB Tauris.

Salem, F., Mourtada, R., & Alshaer, S. (2013). 5th Arab social media report. Dubai School of Government. Retrieved from

Scherer, J., & Rowe, D. (2013). Sport, public broadcasting, and cultural citizenship: signal lost? New York: Routledge.

Schoenbach, K., Saeed, M., & Wood, R. (2016, August). Expanding audience options by online videos in five MENA countries: New favorite genres or more of the same as on television? Paper presented at the meeting of the IAMCR, Leicester,U.K.

Schoenbach, K., Wood, R., & Saeed, M. (2016). Media industries in the Middle East, 2016. Northwestern University in Qatar. Retrieved from

Statista Survey (2017). Most popular daily online activities of adult internet users in the United States as of February 2017. In Statista - The Statistics Portal. Retrieved  from

Tawil Souri, H. (2007). The terrorists’ network: An analysis of “pro-Arab” video games. Paper presented at the meeting of The International Communication Association, San Francisco, CA. 

Telhami, S. (2013). The world through Arab eyes: Arab public opinion and the reshaping of the Middle East. New York: Basic Books. 

Wilson, C., & Dunn, A. (2011). The Arab Spring: Digital media in the Egyptian revolution. International Journal of Communication, 5, 25. 

Wolfsfeld, G., Segev, E., & Sheafer, T. (2013). Social media and the Arab Spring: Politics comes first. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 18(2), 115-137.

Yanarda˘go˘glu, E., & Karam, I. N. (2013). The fever that hit Arab satellite television: Audience perceptions of Turkish TV series. Identities. Global Studies in Culture and Power, 20(5) 561-79.

Zayani, M. (2011). Media, popular culture and contestatory politics in the contemporary Middle East. International Journal of Media & Cultural Politics, 7(1), 85-99.